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Monday, 18 October 2021

Nordic sails - History & development of working sail in North & Northwest-Europe

The intention behind creation of this book was to present the reader with a broad outline of the history and development of working sail in Northern and North-western Europe. The vessels depicted represent hundreds of years of evolution in merchant and fishing ship design and construction. Although many tend to believe that the "age of sail" is long gone and destined never to return, it has in fact never faded completely away, merely decreased in presence and, remarkably enough, some of the technologies and inventions of the past are now revealing their potential to become more important in the future.


Throughout human history, ship propulsion has become more and more advanced. In the earliest days it was provided mostly by paddles/oars, followed by sails. Only after the Industrial Revolution did things start to change more and ship propulsion became increasingly diverse over the years that followed, first with the introduction of steam engines, followed by steam turbines, gasoline and diesel engines, electrical motors, nuclear power and even hydrogen-fueled systems, but the development of wind-based methods never stopped. Sailing merchant ships are making a quite unexpected comeback, and their numbers are increasing. These days the family of commercially active sailing ships is becoming more diverse once again, as the vessels carrying 'classic' canvas sails are being joined by ones carrying the so-called mechanical sails, such as rotor sails, dyna sails, wing sails, wind turbines and various other wind powered mechanisms.

The 1973 oil crisis gave birth to many initiatives towards sailing cargo ship revival, but few of them actually came to fruition. Some examples from this "forgotten decade" of ship design are included here, to an extent permitted by the size constraints of this publication and an unfortunate limitation stemming from a limited source base for these often extremely imaginative projects. Yet, many engineers dared to take the challenge of pushing the bounds of sail technology to wholly new levels and they will all be honoured in this publication as a result

The focus is on ships built (or intended to be built) in countries located in Northern & North-western Europe, as well as those vessels built elsewhere but for clients from the aforementioned areas. As mentioned, obvious practical considerations allowed us to present only a limited selection from an immense multitude of ships that potentially could be included, and some tough choices had to be made in order to find a proper balance between the various categories of vessels while keeping this publishing project manageable. The categories of all kinds of sailing merchant and fishing ships were eligible to be included in this book, on the condition that they were originally built for these purposes, even if not necessarily "sailing" ships from the start, merely converted from motor vessels at some point in their service lives:

Each ship has been presented in a number of detailed technical drawings depicting them during key moments of their history, and supported by detailed write-ups of the ship's service record, technical specifications and sail plans. Starting with their original appearance, followed by the modifications made, changes of ownership, changes in purpose and in some cases their change back to a nearly original state.

Countries that will be represented: Åland, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, France , Germany, Ireland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia/Soviet Union, Sweden, United Kingdom.

Russian ship of the line Lefort 1833-1857

 

The wreck lying on the sea bottom

Laid down in 1833, launched on 9 August 1835 and capsized and sunk underway from Reval [nowadays Tallinn, Estonia] towards Kronstadt in a storm taking with her 826 people. Her wreck was discovered on 4 May 2013. Tonnage 3.500 tons and as dimensions 58.3 x 15.6 x 6,6 metres or 191 x 51 x 22 feet. Her crew numbered 756 men including 13 officers. She was armed with 94 guns. 

A second video showing more of the wreck is published here



Irish general cargo ship (ex-Arklow Femme 2010) Arklow Fern 2010-



Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 30 September 2021

Ireland-flagged, homeport Arklow, IMO 9527661, MMSI 250002173 and call sign EIJWS. Owned by Banco Espanol de Credito SA?.Registered owner Arklow Shipping, Arklow, Ireland and managed by Arklow Shipping, Arklow, Ireland. Ex-Arklow Femme renamed September 2010. Built by Astilleros De Murueta S.A., Vizcaya, Spain in 2010.

American whaler China visited Monganui, New Zealand according to the New Zealand newspaper Daily Southern Cross dated 26 June 1857

An item reported the arrival at Monganui, New Zealand on 14 March of the American whaler China of 370 tons from New Bedford, USA master J.W. Thompson 5 months out 80 barrels sperm cleared for whaling on 23 March.(1)

Sources

1. Whalemen’s Shipping List dated 30 June 1857 shipping agents Wm. Phillips&Son, departed on 15 October 1856.

American whaler Maria Theresia visited Monganui, New Zealand according to the New Zealand newspaper Daily Southern Cross dated 26 June 1857

An item reported the arrival at Monganui, New Zealand on 3 March of the American whaler Maria Theresia of 330 tons from New Bedford, USA master W. Davis jun. 28,5 months out, 1.800 barrels whale cleared for whaling and homeward bound on 11 March.(1)

Sources

1. Whalemen’s Shipping List dated 30 June 1857 shipping agents T.&A.R. Nye, departed on 24 October 1854

American whaler Endeauvour visited Monganui, New Zealand according to the New Zealand newspaper Daily Southern Cross dated 26 June 1857

An item reported the arrival at Monganui, New Zealand on 2 March of the American whaler Endeauvour of 251 tons from New Bedford, USA master J. Horsley 28 months out 1.150 barrels whale 50 barrels sperm cleared for whaling on 7 March.(1)

Sources

1. Whalemen’s Shipping List dated 30 June 1857 bark, 252 tons, shipping agents Abraham Ashley 2nd, departed on 1 November 1854.

American whaler King Fisher visited Monganui, New Zealand according to the New Zealand newspaper Daily Southern Cross dated 26 June 1857

An item reported the arrival at Monganui, New Zealand on 17 February of the American whaler King Fisher of 450 tons from New Bedford, USA master M. Palmer out 5 months 85 barrels whale 700 lbs bone cleared for whaling on 25 February.(1)

Sources

1. Whalemen’s Shipping List dated 30 June 1857 called Kingfisher, bark, shipping agents Jonathan Bourne Jr., 451 tons, departed on 27 September 1856

American whaler W.C. Nye visited Monganui, New Zealand according to the New Zealand newspaper Daily Southern Cross dated 26 June 1857

An item reported the arrival at Monganui, New Zealand on 11 February of the American whaler W.C. Nye of 389 tons from New Bedford, USA master J.M. Soule 1.700 barrels whale oil 400 barrels sperm oil 10.000 lbs bone, cleared homeward bound on 26 February.(1)

Sources

Whalemen’s Shipping List dated 30 June 1857 the William C. Nye, shipping agents C.R. Tucker&Co., arrived at homeport on 13 June 1857.

American large cruiser USS Philippines (CB4) according to the report of progress of naval construction dated 1 May 1942

American Alaska-class large cruisers

American Baltimore-class heavy cruisers

German admiral Graf Spee pocket battleship of Deutschland-class heavy cruisers

Contractor New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, USA.  

Percentage of completion on 1 May 1942: 2.5 

Percentage of completion gain for April 1942: 0.2 

Number of months between keel laying and completion 30. 

Date of completion as per contract or order: 1 April 1946.  

Date of completion as reported by building yard on 11 January 1941: 1 July 1945.  

Date of completion as last reported by building yard: 15 September 1945.  

Months behind 11 January 1941 prediction 2.5 

Building ordered on 9 September 1940 and cancelled in June 1943. The concept for a large cruiser dated back from the 1930 when Germany developed the so-called pocket battleships armed with 28cm/11” guns (later classified as heavy cruisers) which were to beat the Washington heavy cruiser armed with 20.3cm/8” guns. End 1930's seemed Japan intending to built the B-65 class which super cruisers armed with 31cm/12.2” were no match for the US heavy cruisers. The result was that the US navy started with designing her super cruiser variant ending in at least 9 preliminary designs, the finally choosing for an increased Baltimore-class heavy cruiser design. General technical specifications. Displacement 30.249 (standard)-34.803 (full load) tons and as dimensions 241.25 (waterline)-246.43 (over all) x 28.0x w 8.26 (mean)-9.68 (maximum) metres or 791.6-808.6 x 91.9 3.75 x 27.1-9.25 feet. The machinery consisted of 4-shaft General Electric double-reduction geared steam turbines and Babcock&Wilcox boilers supplying 150.00 ship allowing a speed of 31.4-33 knots and a range of 12.000 nautical miles/15 knots. Crew numbered 1.517-2.251 men. Armament consisted of x3-30.5cm/12” cal 50 Mark 8 guns, 6x2-12.7cm/5”cal 38 dual purpose guns, 14x4-4cm/1.57” Bofors guns and 34x1-2cm Oerlikon guns and 4 OS2U Kingfisher or SC Seahawk aircraft to be stored in an enclosed hangar amidships. The armour consisted of a main side belt 23cm/9” gradually thinning to 13cm/5” thicknes sloped at 10 degrees. Further more a 9.7cm/ 3.8-10.2cm/4” thick armour deck, a 3.6cm/1.4” thick weather main deck, a 1.59cm/1.4” thick splinter deck. The barbettes were protected by 28cm/11”- 33cm/13” thick armour. The conning tower by 27cm/10.6”and a 13cm/5” thick roof and finally the gun turrets by 33cm/12.8” (front)-13cm/5” (roof)-13cm/5.25”-15.2cn/6” (sides)-13.3cm/5’5” (rear) thick armour.

Sources

Franklin Roosevelt D. Roosevelt Presidential Library&Museum. Bureau of Ships: reports 1 May 1942 FDR’s President’s Secretary’s Files (psfc000095).  

http://warshipsresearch.blogspot.com/

Dutch merchant ship Juffer Catharina hired by Dutch Admiralty to be used in Danish-Swedish war in 1659

After the peace treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, Denmark intended to recapture from Sweden her possessions and recover her position in the Baltic area. Due to the fact that Sweden was involved with problems in Polen, Denmark thought it was a good time to attack Sweden. However Swedish troops attacked with overwhelming success from the south Denmark. After the capture of the Danish fortress of Frederiksodde October 1657 Sweden possessed the Danish mainland. Only the islands Funen and Seeland were still Danish. The Dutch republic came in action for strategic and economic reasons. The Dutch merchant shipping needed a free passage from the Baltic area towards the home country. The Dutch response towards Sweden was undoubted. A Dutch fleet commanded by one of the most renowned Dutch admirals, Witte de With, attacked 8 November 1658 in the Sont the Swedish fleet commanded by Wrangel. In the battle De With was killed. The same year the Dutch States General allowed the Danish through their representative Gabriel Marselis to hire ships in the Netherlands, mainly to be used as troop transports. The States General and the admiralty of Amsterdam hired for the same purpose ships. All contracts passed notary Jan Volkaerts Oli of Amsterdam. Notary contract dated 8 November 1658 between the admiralty of Amsterdam and master Jan Pieterss Verschol of Egmond, Juffer Catharina, 4 guns, 10 men, monthly rental price ƒ 1.150.

Dutch merchant ship Het Huijs van Abcoude hired by Dutch Admiralty to be used in Danish-Swedish war in 1659

After the peace treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, Denmark intended to recapture from Sweden her possessions and recover her position in the Baltic area. Due to the fact that Sweden was involved with problems in Polen, Denmark thought it was a good time to attack Sweden. However Swedish troops attacked with overwhelming success from the south Denmark. After the capture of the Danish fortress of Frederiksodde October 1657 Sweden possessed the Danish mainland. Only the islands Funen and Seeland were still Danish. The Dutch republic came in action for strategic and economic reasons. The Dutch merchant shipping needed a free passage from the Baltic area towards the home country. The Dutch response towards Sweden was undoubted. A Dutch fleet commanded by one of the most renowned Dutch admirals, Witte de With, attacked 8 November 1658 in the Sont the Swedish fleet commanded by Wrangel. In the battle De With was killed. The same year the Dutch States General allowed the Danish through their representative Gabriel Marselis to hire ships in the Netherlands, mainly to be used as troop transports. The States General and the admiralty of Amsterdam hired for the same purpose ships. All contracts passed notary Jan Volkaerts Oli of Amsterdam. Notary contract dated 8 November 1658 between the admiralty of Amsterdam and master Jan Willemss Trompetter, Het Huijs van Abcoude, dimensions 124 (prow) x 25 x 11, height verdeck 5 feet, 2 iron guns (gotelingen), 10 men, age 12 years, monthly rental price ƒ 1.050, taxed value of the ship ƒ 8.750.

Dutch lighter N.A..S.M. VIII still in service in 1939

Steel built, to be towed, gross tonnage 1.189 tons, under deck 590 tons, net tonnage 614 tons and as dimensions 160.0 x 32.8 x 13.4 feet. Built by M. van der Kuijl, Slikkerveer, Netherlands in April 1907, owned by J.Th. Groenewegen&Co., Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Chinese cargo ship Szymanowski 1991-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 29 September 2013

Cyprus-flagged, homeport Limassol, IMO 8821929, MMSI 212304000 and call sign P3EW4. Gross tonnage 18,184 (international)-18.909 (Suez)-18.978 (Panama) tons, net tonnage 9.106 (international)-14.589 (Panama)-16.128 (Suez), summer deadweight 22.313 tons and as dimensions 162,20 (between perpendiculars)-169,75 (over all) 27,50 x 9,32 x 13,79 (moulded depth) metres. Average speed 14,3 knots. Deck and holds 1.003 TEU. With a Polish master and crew. Built in 1991 by 3 Maj Shipbuilding Industry, Rijeka, Croatia with yard number 657. Commissioned on 26 June 1991. Owned and managed by Chipolbrok, Shanghai, China.

Russian dry cargo ship Vladimir Korolenko 1969-1992 (United Pioneer 1992-1996)


Russia-flagged, homeport Vladivostok, IMO 6901933 and call sign UOUN. Of the Far Eastern Shipping Co. Built by Uljanik Shipyard, Pula, Yugoslavia (Croatia) in 1969. Beached at Alang, India in October 1996 to be broken up. Part of the Pula-class first series consisting of the Pula, Dmitry Gulia, Nazym Khikmet, Arkady Gajdar, Alexandr Grin, Musa Dzhalilj, Demian Bednyi, Alexandr Gertsen, Vissarion Belinsky, Nikolav Ogarev, Nikolay Gogolj, Nikolay Dobroljubov, Anton Chekhov, Novikov-Priboy and Aleksandr Serafimovich. The second series consisted of the Dubrovnik, Alexandr Blok, Sergey Yesenin, Vladimir Maykovskiy, Suleyman Stalskiy, Gavrill Derzhavin, Vladimir Korolenko, Ivan Kotlyarevskiy, Konstantin Paustovskiy and Gamzat Tsadasa.

General technical characteristics. Two-deck and two island, full-scantling and with a closed shelter deck. Deadweight cargo capacity 11.717 tons, deadweight 14.340 tons, gross tonnage 10.401 tons, net tonnage 5.213 tons and as dimensions 148,38 (between perpendiculars)-159,42 (over all) x 21,24 (moulded) x 12,65 (depth to main deck) x 26,30 (height of mast acorn above main deck) x 1,10 (fore light)/9,40 (fore loaded)-3,47 (mean light)-9,72 (mean loaded|)-5,85 (light aft)/10,08 (aft loaded) metres. Speed 18,00 (full load)-20,48 (in ballast). Total bale cargo capacity 20.369 cubic metres and grain cargo capacity 22.276 cubic metres. Original were the first ships of this class for handling cargo fitted out with 12-5 tons derricks and 2-60 tons derricks, later ships just had one or none 60 ton derricks. 

The Chilean naval shipbuilding program according to the Dutch newspaper Het Vaderland: staat- en letterkundig nieuwsblad morning edition dated 29 August 1926

Berlin, 28 August. According to tidings coming from Santiago supplied the Chilean government a budget of 3.400.000 pound to purchased new warships including 12 submarines, 6 torpedo boats, 2 cruisers and 2 transports.

The Spanish-Russian warships in 1818 according to the official Dutch government newspaper Nederlandsche Staatscourant dated 9 May 1818

Madrid, 21 April. It’s beyond any doubt that the ships, recently bought from Russia are needing some repairs. The ships destined towards Lima and which was thought to be ready to depart immediately towards this destination, was fit enough lacking repairs. Of the three frigates just one was in a condition good enough to serve at once. The Russians wanted to return to their country despite the feasts at Cadiz given to pleasure them. They wanted to depart as soon as possible with the 16 transports which were available, while the frigate Diana was ordered to convey the transports up to Cape Ortegal. When the troops destined for the South-American possessions could be embarked was unknown, not only due to the bad condition of the ships, but the crews were incomplete and lacking all of the victuals.

Note
1.“The Chilean frigate O’Higgins captured as the Spanish Maria Isabel, being the former Spanish Patrico and Russian Patricia and finally became the Argentinean Buenos Aires” and “The weakness of the Spanish navy in 1823 according to the local Dutch newspaper Goereesche Courant”.

Chile increasing her naval strength according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1912-1913 no. 10

Almirante Latorre

HMS Eagle


An item reported that the superdreadnoughts built for Chilean account at the shipyard of Armstrong were named Almirante Latorre (1) and Almirante Cochrane (2) and were end 1914 or begin 1915 completed. With a displacement of 28.000 tons and a speed of 22 miles. The armament consisted of 10-35,6cm guns, 22-12cm guns and 4-53cm torpedo tubes. At the shipyard of White&Co. at Cowes was the building of six destroyers of 1.500 ton, speed 31 miles and an armament of 6-10,2cm guns and 3 torpedo tubes. In 1912 were the launched Tomé and Talcahuano sold to Romania. The two submarines Antafagasta and Iquique were being built by the shipyard of the Electric Boat Company in New York. In 1912 numbered the personnel strength 6.080 men.

Notes
1. Purchased by the British government on 9 September 1914, commissioned on 15 October a year later as the HMS Canada, in April 1920 sold back to Chile. Finally broken up in 1959.
2. Purchased by the British government on 28 February 1914, commissioned on 20 February as the carrier HMS Eagle and finally torpedoed by the German submarine U-73 on 11 August 1942 causing her sinking.

Chilean privateers according to the Nederlandsche Staatscourant dated 20 August 1818

Rio Janeiro, 2 June. According to an extract of a letter included the privateers of Chile the former East Indiaman Windham armed with 32 guns and with sailors and officers coming from different countries. It left in the meantime Valparaiso. The arrival of Lord Cochrane at Chile coming from Buenos Ayres was daily expected.

Chilean navy officers probably commanding coastal vessels according to the Dutch newspaper Amigoe di Curacao dated Thursday 9 March 1950

An item reported that the Chilean coastal shipping last Tuesday almost stopped caused by the strike of 1,500 merchant navy officers demanding 60% more salary. If the strike was not ended soon were navy officers to command the coastal vessels.

Dutch floating steam battery De Ruyter ordered to be fitted out immediately according to the Dutch newspaper Heldersche Courant dated 7 February 1866




An item dated Den Helder the 6th reported that the navy direction at Den Helder received orders to prepare the armoured steam floating battery De Ruyter immediately for sea duties. She was there lying in conservation. In the meantime were the needed rafters for her roof already placed and which were not be removed on short notice. Decided was to wait before decommissioning her.(1) The reason for this order was not given, but it was a precaution regarded the Peruvian ironclad Independencia lying at Terneuzen?


Note
1. On stocks at the naval yard at Vlissingen, Netherlands 20 August 1831 as 74 guns ship of the line 2nd class. Dimensions 54,16 x 14,30/14,70 x 6,46-7,32m, displacement 3000-3655 ton (maximum), sail area 237 M2. Crew numbered 650 men. As 54-gun frigate 1st class on stocks at the naval yard at Vlissingen 22 February 1850, launched 8 August 1853, commissioned 21 August 1854. Dimensions 54,16 x 14,30/14,70 x 6,10-6,80m, displacement 2770 ton, sail area 2170M2. Crew numbered 500 men. Rebuilt at naval yard at Hellevoetsluis and NSBM Fijenoord as a steam frigate. In dry dock at the naval yard at Hellevoetsluis 20-21 October 1859 and in the aft dock 25 October-1860-19 September 1861. In 1860 fitted out there with steam power and fitted out with 45 guns. Launched 19 September 1861. Commissioned 17 April 1862. Dimensions 60,30/63,50 x 14,30/14,70 x 6,10-6,80m, displacement 2828 ton, sail area 2450Ms. Crew numbered 500 men. Rebuilt as an armed floating battery at the naval yard at Flushing/NSBM Fijenoord. On stocks mid 1862, launched begun 1866, commissioned 21 July 1870. Dimensions 60,30/63,00 x 14,30/14,93 x 6,40-6,80m, displacement 2944-3050 ton (maximum). Crew numbered 250 men. Armed with 14-60pdr and served at the mouth of the Schelde. Decommissioned 9 October 1870. Sold at Willemsoord to be broken up 1874. Her figurehead was made of fir-wood representing a bust of the Dutch sea hero M.A. de Ruyter.

Former French now Peruvian destroyer Teniente Rodriguez bound for Peru according to the magazine Mitteilungen aus dem Gebiete des Seewesens dated 1912

French armoured cruiser Dupuy de Lôme

An item reported that the Peruvian destroyer Teniente Rodriguez (1) bought from the French shipyards Société Schneider, Creusot was bound homewards. She was around3 year earlier built with a length of 80 metres and a trial speed of 28,5 knots and fitted out with Zoelly turbines. Underway she was to meet at the Azores the also bough armoured cruiser Commandante Aguirre (the former Dupuy de Lôme) and united to travel on.(2)

Notes
1. In the 1930s still in service and used as training ship and in 1939 mentioned ass a hulk. French Chasseur-class, laid down in 1907, launched in 1909 and completed in 1911.
2. Sold on 12 September 1912 to Peru but never delivered while Peru lost interest and on 17 January 1917 officially given back. Laid down at the Brest shipyard on 4 July 1888, launched on 27 October 1890 and commissioned on 15 May 1895. 

Spain threatened Peru to use her navy to get compensation according to the Dutch newspaper Utrechtsch provinciaal en stedelijk dagblad dated 4 November 1864

An item dated Madrid, Spain 29th October reported that Spain intended to make Peru clear that she was not willing to hand over the Chinchas before getting full satisfaction and compensation. If necessary was the Spanish navy to act.(1)

Note
1. Between 1864 and 1866 was Spain in war with her former colonies Peru and Chile including the Spain seizing the Peruvian guano-rich Chincha Islands on 14 April 1864.

Spanish minister of navy Zabala wanted to resign according to the Dutch newspaper Utrechtsch provinciaal en steely dagblad dated 9 February 1866

An item dated Madrid, Spain 3rd reported that general Zabala (1) asked for his dismissal as minister of navy caused by the conflict between Spain and Peru for the reason he was born in the latter country. However his request was yet not allowed while a successor was difficult to find also regarding the conflict met Chile.(2)

Notes
1. Juan de Zavala/Zabala, 1st Marquis of Sierra Bullones (1804 Lima, Peru-1879 Madrid, Spain).
2. Between 1864 and 1866 was Spain in war with her former colonies Peru and Chile including the Spain seizing the Peruvian guano-rich Chincha Islands on 14 April 1864.

Tugs stationed at Matarani, Peru according to a CIA report dated April 1953

An item referred to insurance sources reporting the presence in April 1953 of two tugs at the Peruvian harbour of Marani, of which one was fitted out as a salvage tug. Both tugs were to prevent earlier problems with docking steamships at Matarani.

Source
The report was published on www.archive.org, document number CIA-RDP83-00423R000500410002-9

Peruvian floating forward riverine base (YPL) ABF 401


Former B6-01. She was built at the yard of SIMA, Iquitos as a floating accommations, command and logistics support base for the Amazon using a design originally destined for the US Army Corps of Engineers. Commissioned in July 1998. She was used by personnal of the navy, coast guard and national police of Peru.

Peruvian squadron called back to Callao according to the Dutch newspaper Nederlandsche Staatscourant dated 26 February 1868

An item reported that according to Spanish newspapers the new Peruvian government intended to start a new peaceful relation with Spain. Genera; Conseco (1) decided that all decisions of his predecessor Prado (2) were invalid. According to rumours was the Peruvian squadron lying at Valparaiso, Chile ordered to return immediately to Callao, Peru.

Notes
1. Pedro Diaz Conseco Corbacho (31 January 1815 Huanuco Arequipa, Peru-3 April 1893 Chorillos, Peru) was temporarily president 8 January-2 Augusts 1868 and succeeded after elections by José Balta. In 1862-1863 and 1865was Corbacho also temporarily president.
2. Mariano Ignacio Prado Ochoa (18 December 1826-5 May 1901) was elected and served as president 28 November 1865-8 January 1868. He became president after a coup détat and was on 2 2 August 1876 elected serving until 23 December 1879.

Peruvian naval strength around 1859

According to Busk (1859) consisted the total Peruvian naval strength of 15 vessels with 104 guns. There were two frigates (1-33 and 1-46 gun), 1-14 gun brigantine, 2 ‘large’ steamers (1-10 gun and 1-1 gun), 4 small and one mail steamers and 5 pontoons. Available were 458 marines (one battalion) and 428 pilots.

Source
H. Busk. The Navies of the world; their present state, and future capabilities. London, 1859.

Dutch bark ship Baron van Heemstra sold according to the Dutch newspaper Algemeen Handelsblad dated 29 August 1872

An announcement reported the sale on Monday the 26th at Rotterdam of the Dutch bark ship Baron van Heemstra for ƒ 42.100. Built in 1862, tonnage of 751 tons and captain Nepperus.

Sunday, 17 October 2021

German oil/chemical tanker Apatura 2004-

Vlissingen-Oost, Netherlands 20 October 2010

Gibraltar-flagged, IMO 9258624, MMSI 236260000 and call sign ZDGL7. Gross tonnage 16.901 tons, net tonnage 6.847 tons, summer deadweight 24.064 tons and as dimensions 167,61 (over all) x 26,40 x 9,17 metres. Speed around 15,5 knots.Launched on 27 March 2004 and delivered on 8 August by 3 Maj Shipbuilding Industry, Rijeka, Croatia with yard number 687. Owned and managed by Carl Büttner GmbH&Co. Bremen, Germany.

Russian dry cargo ship Musa Dzhalilj 1966-1998


Russia-flagged, homeport Odessa [Ukraine], IMO 6600151 and call sign UTQB. Built by Uljanik Shipyard, Pula, Yugoslavia (Croatia) in 1966. Built in Yugoslavia for account of the Black Sea Steamship Company in 1966. Part of the Pula-class first series consisting of the Pula, Dmitry Gulia, Nazym Khikmet, Arkady Gajdar, Alexandr Grin, Musa Dzhalilj, Demian Bednyi, Alexandr Gertsen, Vissarion Belinsky, Nikolav Ogarev, Nikolay Gogolj, Nikolay Dobroljubov, Anton Chekhov, Novikov-Priboy and Aleksandr Serafimovich. The second series consisted of the Dubrovnik, Alexandr Blok, Sergey Yesenin, Vladimir Maykovskiy, Suleyman Stalskiy, Gavrill Derzhavin, Vladimir Korolenko, Ivan Kotlyarevskiy, Konstantin Paustovskiy and Gamzat Tsadasa.

General technical characteristics. Two-deck and two island, full-scantling and with a closed shelter deck. Deadweight cargo capacity 11.425 tons, deadweight 14.170 tons, gross tonnage 11.287 tons, net tonnage 6.080 tons and as dimensions 148,38 (between perpendiculars)-159,42 (over all) x 21,24 (moulded) x 12,65 (depth to main deck) x 26,30 (height of mast acorn above main deck) x 1,10 (fore light)/9,40 (fore loaded)-3,47 (mean light)-9,72 (mean loaded|)-5,85 (light aft)/10,08 (aft loaded) metres. Speed 18,00 (full load)-20,48 (in ballast). Total bale cargo capacity 20.369 cubic metres and grain cargo capacity 22.276 cubic metres. Available 1-60 tons derrick and 12-5 tons derricks. 

American whaling ship Washington reported according to the newspaper The Polynesian dated 15 August 1846

The New Pictorial and Illustrated Family Magazine established for the diffusion of useful knowledge, 

vol. III. Robert Sears editor, New York 1846.

An item referred to the Baltic which spoke mid July the American whaling ship Washington of Sag Harbor 12 months out 700 barrels whale oil.

American whaling ship Sabina reported according to the newspaper The Polynesian dated 15 August 1846

The New Pictorial and Illustrated Family Magazine established for the diffusion of useful knowledge, 

vol. III. Robert Sears editor, New York 1846.

An item referred to the Baltic which spoke on 13 July the American whaling ship Sabina blowing hard could not ascertain her amount of oil.

American whaling ship Nigervisited Lahaina, Hawaii according to the newspaper The Polynesian dated 15 August 1846

An item reported the arrival at Lahaina, Hawaii on 13 August of the American whaling ship Niger master Gray of New Bedford 1.000 barrels sperm oil 1.500 barrels whale oil.

American whaling ship Charles Phelps visited Lahaina, Hawaii according to the newspaper The Polynesian dated 15 August 1846

The New Pictorial and Illustrated Family Magazine established for the diffusion of useful knowledge, 

vol. III. Robert Sears editor, New York 1846.

An item reported the arrival at Lahaina, Hawaii on 11 August of the American whaling ship Charles Phelps master Pendleton of Stonington 160 barrels whale oil.

American whaling ship Elizabeth visited Lahaina, Hawaii according to the newspaper The Polynesian dated 15 August 1846

An item reported the arrival at Lahaina, Hawaii on 8 August of the American whaling ship Elizabeth master Tobey of New Bedford 24 months out 550 barrels sperm oil 1.900 barrels whale oil.

Japanese crude oil tanker (ex-TH Symphony 2008-2019) Nordic Symphony 2019-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 11 October 2021

Portugal-flagged, IMO 9403475, MMSI 255806213 and call sign CQAM3. Built by Tsuneishi Tadotsu Factory, Tadotsu, Japan in 2008. Owned by Toshin Kisen and managed by Keishin Kaiun Ehime, both at Imabari, Japan.

Impressive catch results of Dutch Greenland whalers according to the Dutch newspaper Oprechte Haerlemsche courant dated 18 July 1747

An item dated Amsterdam, Netherlands 17 referred to the Dutch Greenland commandeur Lourens Walig who said that the Dutch Greenland whalers totally caught 395 whales.(1)

Note

1. Lourens Jansz Walig, commandeur between 1739-1762, in 1747 for Cornelis Florisz de Lange, Zaandijk, Netherlands 10 whales 350 barrels blubber 560 quardelen oil. Alphabetische naam-lyst van alle de Groenlandsche en Straat-Davidsche Commandeurs die sedert het jaar 1700 op Groenland en sedert het jaar 1719 op de Straat Davis etc. Gerret van Sant. Published by Johannes Enschede, Amsterdam 1770, with hand written note until 1794.

Catch results of the Dutch Greenland commandeur Lourens Simonsz Quast according to the Dutch newspaper Oprechte Haerlemsche courant dated 6 July 1747

An item dated Amsterdam, Netherlands 5 July reported that according to a list the catch results of the Dutch Greenland commandeur L.Z. Quast was just 1 whale. Auke Harmsz who brought the list with him left on 19 June Greenland.(1)

Note

1. Lourens Simonsz Quast, commandeur between 1734-1758, in 1747 for Eenhoorn en Appel, De Rijp, Netherlands 9 whales 330 barrels blubber 450 quardelen oil. Alphabetische naam-lyst van alle de Groenlandsche en Straat-Davidsche Commandeurs die sedert het jaar 1700 op Groenland en sedert het jaar 1719 op de Straat Davis etc. Gerret van Sant. Published by Johannes Enschede, Amsterdam 1770, with hand written note until 1794.

Catch results of the Dutch Greenland commandeur Teunis Ysbrandsz Windig according to the Dutch newspaper Oprechte Haerlemsche courant dated 6 July 1747

An item dated Amsterdam, Netherlands 5 July reported that according to a list the catch results of the Dutch Greenland commandeur T.Y. Windig was just 1 whale. Auke Harmsz who brought the list with him left on 19 June Greenland.(1)

Note

1. Teunis Ysbrandsz Windig, commandeur for Pieter Lubbertsz Koopman, Zaandijk, Netherlands in 1747 2 whales 80 barrels blubber 130 quardelen oil. Alphabetische naam-lyst van alle de Groenlandsche en Straat-Davidsche Commandeurs die sedert het jaar 1700 op Groenland en sedert het jaar 1719 op de Straat Davis etc. Gerret van Sant. Published by Johannes Enschede, Amsterdam 1770, with hand written note until 1794.

Catch results of the Dutch Greenland commandeur Willem Martensz Stint according to the Dutch newspaper Oprechte Haerlemsche courant dated 6 July 1747

An item dated Amsterdam, Netherlands 5 July reported that according to a list the catch results of the Dutch Greenland commandeur W.M. Stend was just 1 whale. Auke Harmsz who brought the list with him left on 19 June Greenland.(1)

Note

1. Willem Martensz Stint, commandeur betwen 1721-1754, in 1747 for Willem Bruyygom and Simon Jongewaart, Westzaan, Netherlands 3 whales 100 barrels blubber 148 quardelen oil. Alphabetische naam-lyst van alle de Groenlandsche en Straat-Davidsche Commandeurs die sedert het jaar 1700 op Groenland en sedert het jaar 1719 op de Straat Davis etc. Gerret van Sant. Published by Johannes Enschede, Amsterdam 1770, with hand written note until 1794.

Singapore-flagged bulk carrier Flora Schulte 2019-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 10 October 2021

Singapore-flagged, IMO 9841938, MMSI 563065800 and call sign 9V6060. Owned by Balestier Park Sg Co. Pte. Ltd. or Schulte Group, Germany. Built by Taizhou Kouan Shipbuilding Industry Co., China with hull number TK1029in 2019.

American whaling bark Concordia visited Lahaina, Hawaii according to the newspaper The Polynesian dated 15 August 1846

An item reported the arrival at Lahaina, Hawaii on 7 August of the American whaling bark Concordia master Loper of Sag Harbor 12 months out 70 barrels sperm oil 1.900 barrels whale oil.

American whaling bark Pioneer visited Lahaina, Hawaii according to the newspaper The Polynesian dated 15 August 1846

An item reported the arrival at Lahaina, Hawaii on 7 August of the American whaling bark Pioneer master Woolverton of New Bedford 24 months out 70 barrels sperm oil 1.900 barrels whale oil.

American whaling ship Corea visited Lahaina, Hawaii according to the newspaper The Polynesian dated 15 August 1846

The New Pictorial and Illustrated Family Magazine established for the diffusion of useful knowledge, 

vol. III. Robert Sears editor, New York 1846.

An item reported the arrival at Lahaina, Hawaii on 7 August of the whaling ship Corea master Hampstead of New Bedford none details supplied.

American whaling ship Fenelon visited Lahaina, Hawaii according to the newspaper The Polynesian dated 15 August 1846

The New Pictorial and Illustrated Family Magazine established for the diffusion of useful knowledge, 

vol. III. Robert Sears editor, New York 1846.

An item reported the arrival at Lahaina, Hawaii on 7 August of the whaling ship Fenelon master Taber of New Bedford none details supplied.

American whaling ship Chilivisited Lahaina, Hawaii according to the newspaper The Polynesian dated 15 August 1846

The New Pictorial and Illustrated Family Magazine established for the diffusion of useful knowledge, 

vol. III. Robert Sears editor, New York 1846.

An item reported the arrival at Lahaina, Hawaii on 7 August of the whaling ship Chili master Ricketson of New Bedford none details supplied

Saturday, 16 October 2021

Italian coastal torpedo boat 62 OL 1915-1932

Laid down by Orlando, Livorno, Italy on 29 November 1915, launched on 27 August 1916, commissioned on 26 September 1916 and stricken on 29 February 1932. Of the PN- class torpedo boats 2nd series 40 PN-45 PN, 46 OS-51 OS, 52 AS-57 AS, 58 OL-63 OL and 64-69 PN. Displacement 108 (standard)-156 (loaded)-162 (with torpedoes), dimensions 42.50 x 4.64 x 1.60 metres. Crew number 30 men. Machinery consisted of 2 Thornycroft water tube boilers and vertical triple expansion steam engines, with 3.200 hp allowing a speed of 27 knots, range 1.000 nautical miles/14 knots and 175 nautical miles/27 knots. Armament 1-7.6 cal 30 guns and 1x2-45cm torpedo tubes

Sources

AMM. Paolo M. Pollina. Le Torpediniere Italiane. Officio Storico della Marina Militare. Rome, 1964.

Several editions of Jane’s Fighting Ships

The Naval Annual 1913

http://warshipsresearch.blogspot.com/