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Sunday, 22 May 2022

Nordic sails - History & development of working sail in North & Northwest-Europe


The intention behind creation of this book was to present the reader with a broad outline of the history and development of working sail in Northern and North-western Europe. The vessels depicted represent hundreds of years of evolution in merchant and fishing ship design and construction. Although many tend to believe that the "age of sail" is long gone and destined never to return, it has in fact never faded completely away, merely decreased in presence and, remarkably enough, some of the technologies and inventions of the past are now revealing their potential to become more important in the future.

 


Throughout human history, ship propulsion has become more and more advanced. In the earliest days it was provided mostly by paddles/oars, followed by sails. Only after the Industrial Revolution did things start to change more and ship propulsion became increasingly diverse over the years that followed, first with the introduction of steam engines, followed by steam turbines, gasoline and diesel engines, electrical motors, nuclear power and even hydrogen-fueled systems, but the development of wind-based methods never stopped. Sailing merchant ships are making a quite unexpected comeback, and their numbers are increasing. These days the family of commercially active sailing ships is becoming more diverse once again, as the vessels carrying 'classic' canvas sails are being joined by ones carrying the so-called mechanical sails, such as rotor sails, dyna sails, wing sails, wind turbines and various other wind powered mechanisms.

 


The 1973 oil crisis gave birth to many initiatives towards sailing cargo ship revival, but few of them actually came to fruition. Some examples from this "forgotten decade" of ship design are included here, to an extent permitted by the size constraints of this publication and an unfortunate limitation stemming from a limited source base for these often extremely imaginative projects. Yet, many engineers dared to take the challenge of pushing the bounds of sail technology to wholly new levels and they will all be honoured in this publication as a result

The focus is on ships built (or intended to be built) in countries located in Northern & North-western Europe, as well as those vessels built elsewhere but for clients from the aforementioned areas. As mentioned, obvious practical considerations allowed us to present only a limited selection from an immense multitude of ships that potentially could be included, and some tough choices had to be made in order to find a proper balance between the various categories of vessels while keeping this publishing project manageable. The categories of all kinds of sailing merchant and fishing ships were eligible to be included in this book, on the condition that they were originally built for these purposes, even if not necessarily "sailing" ships from the start, merely converted from motor vessels at some point in their service lives:

Each ship has been presented in a number of detailed technical drawings depicting them during key moments of their history, and supported by detailed write-ups of the ship's service record, technical specifications and sail plans. Starting with their original appearance, followed by the modifications made, changes of ownership, changes in purpose and in some cases their change back to a nearly original state.

Countries that will be represented: Åland, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, France , Germany, Ireland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia/Soviet Union, Sweden, United Kingdom.

British HMS fast patrol vessel Archer (P264) 1985-



Inner harbour Vlissingen, Netherlands 10 May 2022

United Kingdom-flagged, MMSI 232002840 and call sign GAAQ. Launched by Watercraft Limited, Shoreham-by-Sea on 25 June 1985, homeport Leith. Displacement 54 tons and as dimensions 20.8 x 5.8 x 1.8 metres or 68 x 19 x 5.11 feet. Fitted out with 2 Rolls Royce M800T diesels supplying 1,590 bhp via 2 shafts allowing thanks to the hull design a theoretical speed of 45 knots, but limited to the fitted propulsion. Range 550 nautical miles. Crew numbers 5 (operational)-16 (training purposes) men. Armament 1-2cm Oerlikon to be mounted on forecastle and 3 general purpose guns

Italian coastal torpedo boat 62 S 1885-1907

Schichau type 2nd class, original design with one pole mast. Displacement 80 tons and as dimensions 39.00 x 4.80 x 2.15 metres. Crew numbered 16 men including 2 officers. Range 300 nautical miles/15 knots and 1.000 nautical miles/10 knots. Speed 19-22 knots. Horsepower 1.000 hp. One locomotive boiler. Armament 2-35.6cm torpedo tubes and 2-3.7cm guns. Built by Pattison, Naples, Italy. Laid down on 16 November 1885, launched in 1888, commissioned on 3 September 1888 and stricken on 10 March 1907.

Sources

AMM. Paolo M. Pollina. Le Torpediniere Italiane. Officio Storico della Marina Militare. Rome, 1964.

Several editions of Jane’s Fighting Ships

The Naval Annual 1913

http://warshipsresearch.blogspot.com/

Position of German battleship Tirpitz unknown according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 9 March 1942


Admiral Scheer. Source Werft-Reederei-Hafen 15 April 1933

An item reported that the German battleship Tirpitz (1) recently departing from Trondheim, Norway in northern direction did not return and her position was unknown. The pocket battleship Admiral Scheer (2) and a heavy cruiser of the Hipper-class (presumably the Hipper) (3) were still at Trondheim.

Notes

1. Laid down by Kriegsmarinewerft Wilhelmshaven, Germany on 2 November 1936, launched on 1 April 1939, commissioned on 25 February 1941 and sunk by the Royal Air Force on 12 November 1944 at Tromsø, Norway, with her wreck broken up between 1948-1957. Of the Bismarck-class as answer on the French Richelieu-class battleships.

2. Of the Deutschland-class panzerschiffe later classified as heavy cruisers preceded by the Admiral Hipper-class. Main armament 2x3-28cm/11”guns on fore and aft ship one turret. Laid down by Kriegsmarinewerft Wilhelmshaven, Germany on 25 June 1931, launched on 1 April 1933, commissioned on 12 November 1934, sunk during an air attack at Kiel, Germany on 9 April 1945, partly broken up and the remains used of filling up the inner part of the dockyard.

3. Summary dated 12 March suggested the Prinz Eugen.

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 89 dated 9 March 1942.


Japanese naval forces leaving Rabaul for Salamaua according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 8 March 1942

An item reported that on 6 March Japanese forces were sighted underway from Rabaul, Papua New Guinea towards Salamaua including 3 heavy cruisers and 5 destroyers. At Rabaul were 25 merchant ships, 3 transports and 5 destroyers seen and a day later there 3 cruisers, 4 transports and 1 hospital ship. The J.I.C. commented that Salamaua with her many airfields would serve the Japanese excellent as operations base for eastern New Guinea.

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 88 dated 8 March 1942.

Belgian crane ship Orion I 2019-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 22 May 2022

Belgium-flagged, homeport Antwerp, Belgium, IMO 9825453, MMSI 205755000 and call sign ORMB. Panama-registered? Owned by the DEME Group. DP3 offshore installation vessel. Built by China Ocean Shipping Co. Ltd. ,in 2019. Sometimes referred to as Orion I.

American submarine patrolling in the Dutch East Indies disappeared according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 8 March 1942

An item reported that an American submarine patrolling in the Dutch East Indies was missing since 7 February.

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 88 dated 8 March 1942.

Several Japanese submarines active off Australian western coast according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 8 March 1942

An item reported that it could not be proven that there was more than one Japanese submarine active off Fremantle, Australia. The J.I.C. commented that on 7 March was claimed that 5 Japanese submarines were active along the entire Australian western coast.

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 88 dated 8 March 1942.

American bulk carrier Crested Eagle 2009-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 21 May 2022

Marshall Islands-flagged, IMO 9478626, MMSI 538003477 and call sign V7RC8. Built by IHI Marine United, Tokyo, Japan in 2009. Registered owner Crested Eagle Sg LLC.-owned/managed Eagle Shipping International USA, New York, USA.

Tasmanian whaling barque Wallaby lying at Hobart, Tasmania according to the Colonial Times dated Friday 18 January 1850

An item reported the presence in the harbour of Hobart, Tasmania of the whaling barque Wallaby of 284 tons agent A. Morrison.

Tasmanian whaling barque Sussex lying at Hobart, Tasmania according to the Colonial Times dated Friday 18 January 1850

An item reported the presence in the harbour of Hobart, Tasmania of the whaling barque Sussex of 360 tons agents Seal and Co. 

Tasmanian whaler Pacific lying at Hobart, Tasmania according to the Colonial Times dated Friday 18 January 1850

An item reported the presence in the harbour of Hobart, Tasmania of the whaling ship Pacific of 350 tons agents Seal and Co.

Japanese bulk carrier Ocean Falcon 2011-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 22 May 2022

Panama-flagged, IMO 9595163, MMSI 357656000 and call sign 3FOS6. Registered owner Dawn Shipping SA., Japan, managed by Setouchi Enterprises, Imabari, Japan. Built Hyundai Mipo Dockyard Co. Ltd., Ulsan, South Korea in 2011. 

British whaler Ann active in 1829 according to the newspaper The Sydney Monitor dated Saturday 27 March 1830

An item reported the British whaler Ann 280 tons active in the sperm whaling on 5 January 1829. 

British whaler Offley active in 1829 according to the newspaper The Sydney Monitor dated Saturday 27 March 1830

An item reported the British whaler Offley 445 tons active in the sperm whaling on 5 January 1829. 

British whaler Seringapatam active in 1829 according to the newspaper The Sydney Monitor dated Saturday 27 March 1830

An item reported the British whaler Seringapatam 358 tons active in the sperm whaling on 5 January 1829. 

Greek bulk carrier Samjohn Solidarity 2010-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 21 May 2022

Marshall Islands-flagged, IMO 9434424, MMSI 538007237 and call sign V7ZX5. Registered owner Golden Flame Sg., Athens, Greece. Built by STX Offshore&Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Jinhae, South Korea in 2010.

Allied aircraft attacking Japanese forces at Hioma Beach, New Guinea according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 28 August 1942

An item reported that Allied bombers attacked on 26 August the Japanese forces landing at Hioma Beach, Milne Bay, New Guinea. One transport was believed to be sunk after a direct hit and further were several near misses on a cruiser counted. Shore stores and fuel dumps were set on fire just like 6 beached barges.

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 261 dated 28 August 1942.

Enemy submarines attacking Atlantic Ocean convoys according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 28 August 1942

An item reported that submarines attacked and torpedoed on 27 August northward of the Belle Isle Straits, Atlantic Ocean 3 ships part of a convoy. On 27 August were just south of the Windward passage were another 2 or 3 ships part of a convoy attacked and torpedoed. There were at least two enemy submarines involved, one was rammed by an escort vessel.

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 261 dated 28 August 1942.

German LPG tanker Kappagas 2001-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 22 May 2022

Antigua&Barbuda-flagged, IMO 9215141, MMSI 304040952 and call sign V2IA5. Owned and managed by Sloman Neptun, Bremen, Germany. Built by Santierul Naval Constanta, Contsza, Romania in 2001.

Japanese submarine visited France according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 28 August 1942

An item reported that recently a Japanese submarine should have visited a French Bay of Biscay harbour while on courier service. The J.I.C. commented that this report was feasible.  

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 261 dated 28 August 1942.

Japanese naval force sighted in the Solomons according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 28 August 1942

An item reported that on 26 August in the Faisi (Shortland Island)-Tonolei (Bougainville Island) area in the Solomons a Japanese cruiser, 2 destroyers, 2 cargo ships, 1 smaller vessel and 4 float planes were sen. Japanese surface forces seemed to withdraw for their positions in the vicinity of allied forces in the Tulagi area.

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 261 dated 28 August 1942.

Container ship CMA CGM Lamartine 2010-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 22 May 2022

Malta-flagged, homeport Valletta, IMO 9409194, MMSI 215185000 and call sign 9HA5001. Registered owner SAS Caroline 10. Managed and oprated by Compagnie Maritime D’Affrètement-Compagnie Générale Maritime, Marseille, France. Earlier United Kindom-slagged, homeport London, MMSI 235080187 and call sign 2DMF2. Built by Hanjin Heavy Industries&Construction Co. Ltd., Pusan, South Korea with yard umber N204 in 2010. 

German Greenland seal hunter W. Jelles returned home according to the Dutch newspaper Rotterdamse courant dated 4 June 1772

An item dated Hamburg, Germany 29 May reported the arrival of commandeur Lammers with a list of catch results of the German Greenland seal hunter W. Jelles of Hamburg 15 quardelen seal blubber.(1) 

Note

1. The Jonge Visser, owner Johann A. Willink&Co. Wanda Oesau, Hamburgs Grönlandfahrt auf Walfischfang und Robbenschlag vom 17.-19. Jahrhundert, 1955.

German Greenland seal hunter T. Swen returned home according to the Dutch newspaper Rotterdamse courant dated 4 June 1772

An item dated Hamburg, Germany 29 May reported the arrival of commandeur Lammers with a list of catch results of the German Greenland seal hunter T. Swen of Hamburg 100 quardelen seal blubber.(1)

Note

1. Th. Zween, the Anna, owner P. Witt. Wanda Oesau, Hamburgs Grönlandfahrt auf Walfischfang und Robbenschlag vom 17.-19. Jahrhundert, 1955.

German Greenland commandeur H. Carel according to the Dutch newspaper Rotterdamse courant dated 4 June 1772

An item dated Hamburg, Germany 29 May reported the arrival of the German Greenland commandeur H. Carel of Hamburg 60 quardelen seal blubber.(1)

Note

1. The Jonge Margreta owned by P. Witt. Wanda Oesau, Hamburgs Grönlandfahrt auf Walfischfang und Robbenschlag vom 17.-19. Jahrhundert, 1955

Saturday, 21 May 2022

British frigate HMS Lancaster 1987-



Schelde, Netherlands 9 May 2022

United Kingdom-flagged, homeport HMNB Portsmouth, MMSI 234659000 and call sign GACH. Type 23-class frigates, preceded by Type 22 Frigate, succeeded by Types 26 and 31 Frigates. Building ordered in September 1986, laid down by Yarrow Shipbuildiders on 18 December 1987, launched on 24 May 1990, commissioned on 1 May 1992 and major refits in 2010-2012 and 2017-2019.  Displacement 4,900 tons and as dimensions 133 x 16,1 x 7,3 metres or 436.4 x 52.10 x 23.11 feet. CODLAG propulsion consists of 4-2,020 shp/1,510kW Paxman Valenta 12CM diesel generators, 2-4,000 shp/2,980 kWGEC electric motors and 2-31,199 shp/23,190 kW Rolls-Royce Spey SM1C engines allowing a speed of 29 knots and a range of 7,500 nautical miles/15 knots. Crews numbers 185 persons with accommodation fo 205. Fitted out with a flight deck and enclosed hangar and able to take one helicopter with her. Armament consists of 1-3 cell GWS35 Vertical Launching System (VLS) for Sea Cepto anti-air missiles, up to 2x4 Harpoon launchers of anti-ship missiles, 2x2-32,4cm/12.75” Sting Ray torpedo tubes for anti-submarine warfare, 1-11,43cm/4.5” BAE Mk 8 naval gun, 2-3cm DS30M Mk2 guns or DS30B guns, Browning heavy machine guns, 2 Miniguns and 4 general purpose machine guns.

Losses of Royal Netherlands Navy and Dutch merchant shipping according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 17 March 1942

light cruiser Hr.Ms. Java

destroyer Hr.Ms. Kortenaer

coastal defence ship Hr.Ms. De Zeven Provinciën original appearance, renamed in 1936 Soerabaja as a training ship

An item reported that the total losses of the Netherlands Royal Navy in the Dutch East Indies up to 1 March 1942 consisted of 2 cruisers, 7 destroyers, 6 submarines, 2 minelayers, 1 coast defence ship and 31 flying boats. The Dutch merchant navy lost in the same period 30 merchant ships with a total tonnage of around 100,000 tons. The figures since 1 March could not be confirmed but it seemed that all minelayers, minesweepers, patrol boats and motor torpedo boats were unable to leave the Java Sea were lost. The merchant marine lost presumably 75,000 tons including the 17,000 tons tonnage of tankers lost in the vicinity of Java.

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 97 dated 17 March 1942.

Japanese destroyer shelled Cebu, Philippines according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 17 March 1942

An item reported that a Japanese destroyer shelled on 15 March Cebu, Philippines without causing damage. Japanese batteries at Cavite, Philippines fired at the American harbour forts with just slight damage as result

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 97 dated 17 March 1942.

Strong Japanese naval force bound for the Bay of Bengal according to the U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary dated 17 March 1942

 An item reported that the Japanese naval forces which seemed to participate in the advance of the Bay of Bengal consisted of 1 aircraft carrier, 3 cruisers, 8 destroyers, 4 converted seaplane tenders and around 75 shore-based aircraft.

Source

Map Room Papers (Roosevelt Administration), 1942 - 1945. U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee. Daily summary No. 97 dated 17 March 1942.

Dutch offshore supply ship Windcat 101 2010-



Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 3 April 2022

United Kingdom-flagged, IMO 9574913, MMSI 235086213 and call sign 2ELU3. Built by Bloemsa van Breemen Shipyard, Makkum, Netherlands in 2010. High speed craft. Owned by Windcraft Workboats BV., IJmuiden, Netherlands.

Japanese potential troop transport Celebes Maru in December 1921

On 22 May 1922 (!) received the Dutch naval staff at The Hague, Netherlands from the Dutch embassy at Tokyo, Japan a detailed specification of Japanese merchant ships of minimum 1.500 tons tonnage usable for troop transport over sea on 13 December 1921. If the transport was over a short distance for instance Japan-Philippines or Japan-Chinese harbour was the transport capacity increased with 10% and on a distance within 24 hours even doubled. The figures were supplied by non-Japanese experts, partly based on the troop transports between Japan-China and Japan-Siberia. The transports were kept secret. At that moment was Japan already considered as a potential enemy. For each ship was mentioned how many troops included equipment could be transported over a longer distance, for instance to an island belonging to the Dutch East Indies. In February-March 1942 invaded Japan indeed the Dutch East Indies.

Speed 11.5 miles, net tonnage 4.258 tons, gross tonnage 5.857 tons, transport capacity 1.950 men and owned by O.S.K. Cargo ship. Coal-fuelled.

Source

Archive Dutch Naval Staff 1886-1942 inventory number 137 (National Archive at The Hague, Netherlands

Japanese potential troop transport Tokiwa Maru in December 1921

On 22 May 1922 (!) received the Dutch naval staff at The Hague, Netherlands from the Dutch embassy at Tokyo, Japan a detailed specification of Japanese merchant ships of minimum 1.500 tons tonnage usable for troop transport over sea on 13 December 1921. If the transport was over a short distance for instance Japan-Philippines or Japan-Chinese harbour was the transport capacity increased with 10% and on a distance within 24 hours even doubled. The figures were supplied by non-Japanese experts, partly based on the troop transports between Japan-China and Japan-Siberia. The transports were kept secret. At that moment was Japan already considered as a potential enemy. For each ship was mentioned how many troops included equipment could be transported over a longer distance, for instance to an island belonging to the Dutch East Indies. In February-March 1942 invaded Japan indeed the Dutch East Indies.

Speed 11 miles, net tonnage 4.490 tons, gross tonnage 7.262 tons, transport capacity 2.450 men and owned by N.Y.K. Cargo ship. Coal-fuelled.

Source

Archive Dutch Naval Staff 1886-1942 inventory number 137 (National Archive at The Hague, Netherlands. 

South Korean heavy lift vessel (ex-STX Rose 2012-2013) Sun Rise 2013-



Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 28 February 2022

Marshall Islands-flagged, homeport Majuro, IMO 9623219, MMSI 538004795 and call sign V7ZD3. Ex-STX  Rose renamed July 2013. Owned by STX Pan Ocean, Seoul, South Korea and managed by STX Marine Services, Pusan, South Korea. Built by STX Offshore&Shipbuilding, Jinhae, South Korea in 2012

British whaler Harriet active in 1829 according to the newspaper The Sydney Monitor dated Saturday 27 March 1830

An item reported the British whaler Harriet 361 tons active in the sperm whaling on 5 January 1829.

British whaler Tuscan active in 1829 according to the newspaper The Sydney Monitor dated Saturday 27 March 1830

An item reported the British whaler Tuscan 367 tons active in the sperm whaling on 5 January 1829.

British whaler Cape Packet active in 1829 according to the newspaper The Sydney Monitor dated Saturday 27 March 1830

An item reported the British whaler Cape Packet 226 tons active in the sperm whaling on 5 January 1829.

Danish crew tender Umoe Rapid 2017-


Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 28 February 2022

Denmark-flagged, IMO 9822774, MMSI 219024900 and call sign OYRX2. Part of the fleet of World Marine Offshore, Esbjerg, Denmark. Built by Umoe Mandal AS, Mandal, Norway, in 2017.

German Greenland seal hunter P. Theunis returned home according to the Dutch newspaper Rotterdamse courant dated 4 June 1772

An item dated Hamburg, Germany 29 May reported the arrival of commandeur Lammers with a list of catch results of the German Greenland seal hunter P. Theunis of Hamburg 200 seals. (1) 

Note

1. P. Teunies, the 5 Gebroeders, owner E. Münster&Sohn, Wanda Oesau, Hamburgs Grönlandfahrt auf Walfischfang und Robbenschlag vom 17.-19. Jahrhundert, 1955.

German Greenland seal hunter H.M. Jaspers returned home according to the Dutch newspaper Rotterdamse courant dated 4 June 1772

An item dated Hamburg, Germany 29 May reported the arrival of commandeur Lammers with a list of catch results of the German Greenland seal hunter H.M. Jaspers of Hamburg 45 quardelen seal blubber.(1) 

Note

1.The Martin, owned by M. Rowohl&S. Wanda Oesau, Hamburgs Grönlandfahrt auf Walfischfang und Robbenschlag vom 17.-19. Jahrhundert, 1955.

German Greenland seal hunter H. Nannings returned home according to the Dutch newspaper Rotterdamse courant dated 4 June 1772

An item dated Hamburg, Germany 29 May reported the arrival of commandeur Lammers with a list of catch results of the German Greenland seal hunter H. Nannings of Hamburg 7 quardelen seal blubber.(1)

Note

1. The Sara Galley, owned by P.&G. Beets. Wanda Oesau, Hamburgs Grönlandfahrt auf Walfischfang und Robbenschlag vom 17.-19. Jahrhundert, 1955.

Dutch tug Viking 2008-




Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 10 February 2022 
towing with the Waterchief the Dutch OPV Zr.Ms. Groningen

Netherlands-flagged, IMO 9431903, MMSI 245039000 and call sign PIHD. Gross tonnage 332 tons, summer deadweight 235 tons and as dimensions 27,67 (between perpendiculars)-30,80 (over all) x 10,50 x 3,75 (construction)-4,10 metres, Built in 2008 at the Scheepswerf Gebroeders Kooiman, Zwijndrecht, Netherlands. Owned by Koerts International Towing Service (KITS) at Delfzijl, Netherlands.